Communicate through the cloud

PubSub is a service for bi-directional communication. In this tutorial, we show how two apps can communicate with each other through the Toit cloud. Communicating through the cloud allows apps installed on different devices to communicate with each other. Note that in this scenario, the publish/subscribe events relies on the Max Offline value set for the device(s) involved.

The subscriber

In the previous tutorial we showed how the publish/subscribe service works in Toit and gave an example of how to run a subscriber and a publisher on your device.

This time, we create the subscriber as an application that will be installed on your device. In the app specification file, we subscribe to the cloud topic. A new message received on this topic will trigger running the Toit program which then consumes the message. This means that the message has been acknowledged and removed from the cloud topic. This process ensures that one message cannot trigger the app more than once.

The Toit program for subscribing to a cloud topic can be found here:

/// Subscribes to a cloud topic.

import pubsub
topic ::= "cloud:hello-world"

  print "wakeup - checking messages"
  pubsub.subscribe topic --blocking=false: | msg/pubsub.Message |
    sender := ?
    if msg.sender.is_device:
      sender = "Device($msg.sender.hardware_id)"
      sender = "ExternalSystem($msg.sender.external_name)"
    print "Received message '$msg.payload.to_string' from $sender"
  print "done processing all messages"

The corresponding app specification file for the subscriber that defines the pubsub trigger, and which is deployed on your device as a Toit application, can be found here:

# The pubsub trigger specifies that the subscribe_cloud program runs 
# every time a message is received on the given cloud topic.

name: Subscribe
entrypoint: subscribe_cloud.toit

   - "cloud:hello-world"

Deploy the subscriber app using the CLI with

toit deploy subscribe_cloud.yaml

The publisher

Then run the publisher program from another device by pasting the following program in the Code tab of the device in the Toit console:

/// Publishes a message on the same cloud topic as used in the subscriber

import pubsub
topic ::= "cloud:hello-world"

  pubsub.publish topic "Hello from another device"

You can also send a message directly from the CLI with

toit pubsub write cloud:hello-world "Mr. CLI" -- Hello from the CLI

Go to the Toit console, and choose the device on which the subscriber app was installed on. Look in the LOGS tab of the device to confirm that the message has been received.

Screenshot of CLI running hello world