Sensors and minimal capacitors are available as break out boards. They can be connected to an ESP32 using soldering on pin or using a cable system such as the Qwiic system.
All Qwiic cables have the following color scheme and arrangement:
Black = GND - to be connected to the GND ground pin of the ESP32
Red = 3.3V - to be connected to the 3.3V power pin of the ESP32
Blue = SDA - data channel to be connected to any numbered pin of the ESP32
Yellow = SCL - clock line to be connected to any numbered pin of the ESP32. It is used to synchronize all data transfers over the I2C bus.
When more than one sensor / actuator is needed, you can use a breadboard to allow for multiple connections. It is also sometimes possible to connect several sensors one after the other with Qwiic cables.